BA English 1st Semester Previous year Questions Core 2 VBU University. 

BA English 1st Semester Core 2 question paper of 2022. These questions are very important for all universities because the questions are based on the CBSE syllabus. If you are from BBMKU VBU or any other university, these questions are very important for the final examination. BA English 1st Semester

Choose the correct option 1×10=10 BA English 1st Semester

1. Who was the mortal man responsible for the plague against the Army?
a) Odysseus
b) Agamemnon ✓
c) Achilles
d) Chratheus

2. Who calls Agamemnon greedy for profit and shameless?
a) Achilles ✓
b) Aias
c) Odysseus
d) Nestor

3. Who stops Achilles from killing Agamemnon?
a) Aphrodite
b) Athena ✓
c) Helena
d) Hera

4. The French title of the story “The Necklace” was
a) The deaf-mute
b) Madame Parisse
c) Le Parure ✓
d) The magic couch

5. Where did Mathilde Loisel borrow the necklace
a) from her brother
b) from her sister
c) from her friend ✓
d) none of these

6. Guy de Moupassant was born in
a) 1750
b) 1789
c) 1821
d) 1850 ✓

7. Guy de Moupassant was a famous-
a) German author
b) Russian author
c) French author✓
d) Canadian author

8. The Chairs was published in
a) 1951
b) 1952 ✓
c) 1953
d)1970

9. Where was Munshi Premchand was born
a) Kanpur
b) Varanasi ✓
c) Allahabad
d) Sitapur

10. In Godan Pandit Onkarnath was an editor of
a) Blaze ✓
b) Times
d) Khabar
d) Flash

Answer the following question in not more than 150 words 4×10=40

1. Why is Achilles a hero?
Ans: Achilles is considered to be the hero of the epic “The Iliad” written by Homer. He is the central character of the epic. And the wrath of Achilles is the main subject of the Iliad. He is considered to be the hero of the epic because he was the bravest and the most fearless soldier of the Trojan war. Moreover, the whole story of the Iliad is based on him. He had all the characteristics of a great soldier. According to Greek mythology, he was the son of Peleus and the goddess Thetis. There is a tale about Achilles being the bravest warrior. The tale is that one day when Achilles was a baby his mother dipped him into the river of Styx so that he could become immortal. His whole body became immortal except for his hills because his mother Thetis did not dip his hills into that river due to the fact she had to hold him by his hills.

or

What is the significance of the speech Achilles Horse?
Ans: It seems you might be referring to the phrase “Achilles’ heel” rather than “Achilles Horse.” The term “Achilles’ heel” has significant cultural and symbolic importance, primarily stemming from Greek mythology. Here’s the significance of the phrase:

In Greek mythology, Achilles was a legendary hero of the Trojan War, known for his remarkable strength and combat skills. However, he had one vulnerability—his heel. According to the myth, when Achilles was a baby, his mother, Thetis, dipped him into the River Styx to make him invulnerable. She held him by his heel, and the water didn’t touch that part of his body. As a result, his heel remained his only weak point.

The significance of “Achilles’ heel” lies in its representation of a person’s singular, often hidden, vulnerability or weakness. It is a metaphor for a critical flaw or point of weakness in an otherwise strong or invulnerable individual or system. This concept has been widely adopted in literature, popular culture, and everyday language to describe situations where a seemingly strong entity or person can be brought down or defeated by a single, often overlooked, weakness.

For example, in discussions of cybersecurity, an organization might have strong defenses, but a single overlooked vulnerability can lead to a breach. In literature and storytelling, characters are often given an “Achilles’ heel” to create tension and conflict in the plot. In personal development, understanding one’s own weaknesses or “Achilles’ heel” can be crucial for self-improvement.

So, the significance of the term “Achilles’ heel” is that it serves as a powerful symbol of vulnerability in the face of strength, reminding us that even the mightiest can have hidden weaknesses that, when exploited, can lead to their downfall.

2. What is the main idea of the novel Godan?
Ans: The Main Idea of the novel Godan by Munshi Premchand is the Indian society during British rule. Hori is the central character of this work. The novel Godan is considered the masterpiece of Munshi Premchand. In this novel, Pramchand shows the pathetic condition of Indian poor farmers during British rule.

Premchand has critically evaluated the social, economic, religious, and political conditions of that time’s society. At the beginning of the story, Hori was in a hurry to go to Rai Sahab’s house so he left his home without even having breakfast. He was afraid of Rai Sahab.

The whole novel is based on Hori, a poor farmer. Hori represents all the farmers of British rule. Premchand through his novel has tried to make us aware of the Indian peasantry during British rule. How the farmers were unable to eat even enough to survive and how they were being exploited by Zamindars and money lenders.

or
What is the significance of the title of Godaan?
Ans: Click here to see the answer

3. What are the three classes used in “Boule de Suif”?
Ans:

The three classes used in “Boule de Suif” are the aristocracy, the bourgeoisie, and the working class.

  • The aristocracy is represented by the Comte and Comtesse Hubert de Breville. They are wealthy nobles who are fleeing the war. They are initially condescending and dismissive of Boule de Suif, but they eventually come to respect her for her courage and selflessness.
  • The bourgeoisie is represented by the Loiseaus, the Carre-Lamadons, and Monsieur Cornudet. They are middle-class merchants and professionals. They are initially hesitant to associate with Boule de Suif, but they eventually come to see her as a human being.
  • The working class is represented by Boule de Suif herself. She is a prostitute who is fleeing the war. She is initially ostracized by the other passengers, but she eventually wins their respect with her kindness and generosity.

The three classes are used to explore the themes of class prejudice, social hypocrisy, and the importance of compassion. Maupassant shows how the different classes can come together in times of crisis, but he also shows how they can be divided by their prejudices and preconceptions.

The story was written in 1880, during the Franco-Prussian War. The war was a time of great upheaval and social change, and Maupassant’s story reflects the tensions and divisions that were present in French society at the time.

The story is still relevant today, as it explores the timeless themes of class, prejudice, and compassion. It is a powerful reminder that we should not judge others based on their social status or background. We should all be treated with dignity and respect, regardless of who we are or where we come from.
or

What is the message of the piece of string?
Ans: The message of “The Piece of String” is the injustice of mankind. Maupassant often created stories concerning selfishness, envy, improbity, spite, greed, and other adverse human qualities. In Maupassant’s world, basically, everyone is perfidious and phony. He persuades the readers to approve of his opinion that cunning, ferocity, greed, as well as coarseness, are extra typical amongst males that a person wishes to approve. As a writer, he appears tortured by the male’s painful state of spiritual isolation, of the bar that separates a guy from his fellow men, and of the reality that a person’s loneliness is extra sparingly experienced, the nearer one is to others. In “The Piece of String,” an entire village makes a simple male’s life miserable by implicating him in theft. He attempts relentlessly, but unsuccessfully, to encourage them that he is merely grabbing a piece of string. The villagers decline to think of him not as much since they are persuaded of his sense of guilt, yet instead due to the fact that they delight in venting their spite on this modest, helpless male.

4. What is the central theme of the play “The Chairs” by Lenesco?
Ans: The central theme of the play “The Chairs” by Eugène Ionesco is the absurdity of human existence. The play is set in an empty room, with only two characters, an Old Man and an Old Woman. The Old Man is a retired teacher who has spent his life writing a message that he believes will save humanity. However, he is unable to communicate his message effectively, and the Old Woman is unable to understand it.

The play is full of absurdist elements, such as the use of nonsensical language, the repetition of phrases, and the lack of any clear plot or resolution. The play’s absurdity reflects the absurdity of the human condition, which is characterized by meaninglessness, isolation, and despair.

The play also explores the themes of communication, hope, and death. The Old Man’s message is a symbol of hope, but it is also a symbol of the impossibility of communication. The Old Woman’s death at the end of the play represents the ultimate absurdity of human existence.

“The Chairs” is a challenging and thought-provoking play that explores the darker side of the human condition. It is a play that is still relevant today, as it speaks to the existentialist anxiety that is felt by many people in the modern world.

Here are some other themes that are explored in the play:

  • The illusion of reality: The Old Man and Old Woman live in a world of their own making, which is full of illusions and fantasies. They are unable to face the reality of their situation, which is that they are old, lonely, and dying.
  • The breakdown of communication: The Old Man and Old Woman are unable to communicate effectively with each other or with the invisible guests whom they are expecting. This breakdown of communication reflects the breakdown of communication in the world at large.
  • The meaninglessness of life: The play suggests that life is meaningless and absurd. The Old Man’s message is a symbol of hope, but it is also a symbol of the impossibility of finding meaning in life.

“The Chairs” is a complex and challenging play that can be interpreted in many ways. However, the central theme of the play is the absurdity of human existence. The play is a powerful reminder that life is often meaningless, lonely, and absurd.
or

Why is a dramatic device important? What are the dramatic devices used in “The Chairs” by Lenesco?
Ans:

3. Answer any two of the following questions 2 x 15 = 30

1. What are your views on the Trojan War, as presented by Homer? Does the war seem to be fought for a just cause?
Ans: The Trojan War, as presented by Homer in the Iliad, is a complex and multifaceted conflict. There are many different causes of the war, and it is difficult to say definitively whether or not it was fought for a just cause.

On the one hand, the war was ostensibly fought to recover Helen, the wife of Menelaus, who was abducted by Paris, the son of the Trojan king Priam. This abduction was a violation of guest-friendship, a sacred bond that was considered to be very important in the ancient world. So, in this sense, the war could be seen as a just cause.

On the other hand, the war was also motivated by a desire for revenge and glory. The Greeks were angry that Paris had chosen Aphrodite over Hera and Athena in a beauty contest, and they wanted to punish him and his city. Additionally, many of the Greek heroes, such as Achilles, were eager to prove themselves in battle and win fame and glory.

Ultimately, the question of whether or not the Trojan War was fought for a just cause is a matter of interpretation. There are strong arguments to be made on both sides of the issue.

Personally, I believe that the Trojan War was a complex conflict with no easy answers. There were many different factors that contributed to the war, and it is impossible to say definitively whether or not it was fought for a just cause. However, I do believe that the war was a tragedy for both the Greeks and the Trojans. The war caused immense suffering and loss of life, and it ultimately led to the destruction of Troy.

In the end, I think the most important lesson to be learned from the Trojan War is that war is never the answer. It is always better to seek peaceful solutions to our conflicts, even if it is difficult.
or

Explain the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles in Iliad Book 1 by Homer.
Ans: The quarrel begins when a plague strikes the Greek camp. The seer Calchas reveals that the plague is the wrath of Apollo, who is angry that Agamemnon has taken his priest Chryses’ daughter Chryseis as a war prize. Agamemnon is forced to return Chryseis to her father, but he refuses to give up another of his war prizes, the maiden Briseis, who has been given to him by Achilles.

Achilles is furious at Agamemnon’s decision. He feels that Agamemnon has dishonored him and that he is being treated unfairly. He withdraws from the war and takes his Myrmidons with him, leaving the Greeks greatly weakened.

The quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles has a number of consequences. It leads to the deaths of many Greek soldiers, including Patroclus, Achilles’ best friend. It also sets the stage for the eventual victory of the Trojans.

The quarrel also reveals the complex relationship between Agamemnon and Achilles. Agamemnon is the commander-in-chief of the Greek forces, and he believes that he has the right to take whatever he wants. Achilles is the greatest warrior in the Greek army, and he believes that he deserves to be treated with respect. The quarrel between them highlights the tensions between these two powerful figures, and it foreshadows the eventual downfall of the Greeks.

In addition to the immediate consequences, the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles also has a deeper significance. It reflects the underlying tensions between honor and power, between individual and collective responsibility, and between the needs of the many and the desires of the few. These are all themes that are explored throughout the Iliad, and they continue to resonate with readers today.

2. Discuss how Indian society revolves around the caste system in Godan.
Ans: The caste system is a complex and hierarchical social structure that has been in place in India for centuries. It divides people into four main groups or varnas: Brahmins (priests and scholars), Kshatriyas (warriors and rulers), Vaishyas (merchants and farmers), and Shudras (laborers). There is also a fifth group, the Untouchables, who are considered to be outside the caste system.

The caste system has had a profound impact on Indian society, shaping everything from social interactions to economic opportunities. In Godan, Premchand shows how the caste system permeates every aspect of life in the village of Belari.

The main character, Hori Mahato, is a poor peasant who belongs to the Shudra caste. He is constantly exploited by the upper castes, including the moneylender Jhinguri Singh, the landlord Rai Saheb, and the Brahmin priest Pandit Datadeen. Hori is unable to escape his poverty because he is trapped in a cycle of debt. He is forced to sell his cow, the only source of milk for his family, in order to pay off his debts.

The other characters in the novel are also affected by the caste system. Hori’s wife, Dhania, is a member of the same caste as him. She is a hard-working woman who does everything she can to support her family, but she is also subjected to discrimination and abuse by the upper castes.

The novel’s ending is tragic. Hori dies in debt, and his family is left to fend for themselves. This is a reflection of the reality of life for many people in India who are trapped in the caste system.

Godan is a powerful novel that exposes the evils of the caste system. It is a reminder that the caste system is a social construct that has no basis in reality. It is a system that oppresses and exploits the poor and marginalized, and it must be abolished.

In addition to the characters mentioned above, the novel also features other characters who represent different castes. For example, Bhola, the cowherd, is a member of the Mallah caste, which is considered to be lower than the Shudra caste. Seliya, the cobbler’s daughter, is an Untouchable. These characters’ experiences show how the caste system affects people from all walks of life.

Premchand’s novel is a valuable contribution to the fight against the caste system. It is a reminder that the caste system is a social evil that must be abolished. It is a powerful call for social justice and equality.
or

Critically evaluate a character sketch of Hori.
Ans: click here to see the answer

3. In what ways is Mathilde Loisel responsible for her own downfall in “The Necklace”?
Ans: Mathilde Loisel is responsible for her own downfall in “The Necklace” by Guy de Maupassant in several ways:

  1. Discontentment with her life: Mathilde’s dissatisfaction with her humble and modest life is the primary reason for her downfall. She constantly yearns for luxury and wealth, believing that she is meant for a higher social status. This discontentment leads her to make impulsive and reckless decisions.
  2. Borrowing the necklace: When Mathilde receives an invitation to a fancy party, instead of being content with her simple attire, she insists on borrowing a beautiful diamond necklace from her friend, Madame Forestier. This decision sets in motion a series of events that lead to her downfall.
  3. Losing the necklace: Mathilde’s carelessness and lack of responsibility result in her losing the borrowed necklace. Instead of being honest with Madame Forestier immediately, she and her husband decide to replace it with a new one by taking out loans and making significant financial sacrifices.
  4. Years of hardship: Mathilde and her husband endure years of financial hardship and debt to replace the necklace. This leads to them living a life of poverty, contrary to Mathilde’s initial desire for wealth and luxury. Her inability to accept her circumstances and her poor decisions contribute to her downfall.
  5. Failure to appreciate her husband’s sacrifices: Throughout their struggles, Mathilde fails to recognize and appreciate the sacrifices made by her husband, Monsieur Loisel. He works tirelessly and takes on multiple jobs to repay their debts and provide for her. Her lack of gratitude and understanding further emphasizes her role in her own downfall.
  6. The revelation of the necklace’s true value: Mathilde and her husband discover the true value of the necklace they borrowed was significantly lower than they had believed. This revelation highlights the extent to which Mathilde’s obsession with material possessions and social status led her to make irrational decisions that caused her suffering.

In “The Necklace,” Mathilde Loisel’s character is portrayed as being responsible for her own downfall because of her insatiable desire for wealth and luxury, her poor judgment and decisions, her carelessness, and her inability to appreciate the simple and genuine aspects of her life.
or

What is the moral of the story “Two Soldiers” by Guy de Maupassant?
Ans: Two Soldiers” by Guy de Maupassant is a story set during the Franco-Prussian War, and it primarily deals with themes of brotherly love, loyalty, and the human cost of war. The story doesn’t necessarily have a moral in the traditional sense, but it conveys several significant themes and messages:

  1. The Bond of Brotherly Love: The central theme of the story is the strong bond between two brothers, Jean and the younger child. Despite the dangers and challenges of war, Jean is determined to be with his brother and protect him at all costs. This underscores the idea that familial love and loyalty can be a powerful motivator and force even in the midst of conflict.
  2. Innocence Amidst Conflict: The story highlights the innocence of the younger brother who, in his childlike perspective, doesn’t fully comprehend the gravity of the war. This innocence stands in stark contrast to the brutality and harshness of the war-torn world around him. It serves as a reminder of the impact of war on the lives of ordinary people, especially children.
  3. Sacrifice: Jean is willing to go to great lengths and take enormous risks to ensure his brother’s safety and happiness. His selflessness and willingness to sacrifice for his family underline the idea that love can inspire acts of great courage and devotion.
  4. The Futility of War: While the story doesn’t explicitly condemn war, it does depict the harsh realities and futility of armed conflict. The war disrupts the lives of the characters, causing suffering and hardship, and ultimately leads to tragic consequences for Jean and his brother.
  5. The Power of Determination: Jean’s determination to reunite with his brother and protect him in a war-torn environment serves as an example of the strength of the human spirit and the will to overcome seemingly insurmountable obstacles.

In “Two Soldiers,” Guy de Maupassant explores the themes of love, loyalty, innocence, and the impact of war on ordinary people. While there may not be a single moral lesson, the story prompts readers to reflect on the profound and often tragic consequences of war and the enduring power of family bonds in the face of adversity.

4. How can the addition of chairs to an empty stage actually serve to deepen the symbolism of the emptiness of the lives of the old man and the old woman?
Ans: The addition of chairs to an empty stage can be a powerful symbolic device in a theatrical production to deepen the symbolism of the emptiness of the lives of the old man and the old woman in several ways:

  1. Visual Emptiness: An empty stage, devoid of any furniture or props, can visually represent the emptiness and barrenness of the characters’ lives. By placing chairs on the stage, you are introducing a visual element that highlights the void in their existence. The presence of chairs implies the potential for companionship and interaction, but their emptiness emphasizes the absence of meaningful connections in the old man’s and woman’s lives.
  2. Isolation and Loneliness: Chairs can symbolize a space for social interaction and engagement. When they are empty, it underscores the isolation and loneliness experienced by the characters. The chairs become a tangible reminder of the lack of companionship and meaningful relationships in their lives.
  3. Unrealized Potential: Chairs are typically used for sitting, conversing, and connecting with others. When the chairs remain unoccupied, it symbolizes the unrealized potential for social interaction and fulfillment in the old man and woman’s lives. Their existence becomes a constant reminder of missed opportunities and unfulfilled desires.
  4. Stagnation: The presence of chairs can also represent a sense of stagnation. When characters do not utilize them for their intended purpose, it suggests that they are stuck in a rut, unable or unwilling to engage with the world or make changes in their lives. The chairs become a symbol of inertia and routine.
  5. Emotional Absence: Chairs can be seen as placeholders for emotional connections. When they are empty, it signifies the emotional absence in the characters’ lives. It reinforces the idea that the old man and woman may be physically present but emotionally distant from each other and those around them.
  6. Symbolic Contrast: If the stage begins empty and gradually accumulates chairs over the course of the play, it can symbolize the gradual realization of the characters’ loneliness and the increasing weight of their empty lives.

Incorporating chairs onto an empty stage and leaving them unoccupied can serve as a powerful visual metaphor to emphasize the hollowness and emptiness experienced by the old man and the old woman. It allows the audience to connect with the characters’ emotional states and underscores the central themes of isolation and unfulfilled longing in their lives.
or

Critically examine how “The Chairs” is an absurdist “tragic farce” play by E. Lenesco.
Ans: The Chairs” (French title: “Les Chaises”) is indeed an absurdist play written by Eugène Ionesco, not E. Lenesco. It is often characterized as a “tragic farce” within the theater of the absurd genre. Here’s a critical examination of how “The Chairs” fits this description:

  1. Absurdity and Nihilism: “The Chairs” epitomizes the absurd by presenting a nonsensical and chaotic world. The characters, Old Man and Old Woman live in an empty and decaying house on an isolated island. Their dialogues are filled with meaningless, disjointed conversations, reflecting the senselessness of existence. The play portrays the human condition as absurd, with no inherent meaning or purpose.
  2. Tragic Elements: Despite its humorous and absurd aspects, “The Chairs” contains tragic elements. The play explores themes of isolation, disillusionment, and the futility of communication. The characters’ longing for significance and the ultimate emptiness of their lives result in a sense of tragedy. The final scene, in which they commit suicide by jumping into the sea, is a stark and tragic culmination of their hopelessness.
  3. Farcical Elements: The play incorporates farcical elements through its use of physical comedy, absurd props, and exaggerated gestures. The arrival of a multitude of invisible guests and the old couple’s frenzied attempts to accommodate them create comedic chaos. This juxtaposition of absurdity and comedy contributes to the “tragic farce” genre.
  4. Theatricality and Meta-theatricality: “The Chairs” highlights the artificiality of theater itself. The characters prepare for the arrival of the invisible guests as if it were a performance. This meta-theatrical aspect blurs the lines between reality and illusion, emphasizing the absurdity of human rituals and the human tendency to seek validation through performance.
  5. Lack of Resolution: A hallmark of the theater of the absurd is the absence of clear resolutions. In “The Chairs,” the climax of the invisible guests’ arrival ultimately leads to the characters’ disillusionment and suicide, leaving the audience with a sense of ambiguity and unresolved questions. This lack of closure is a characteristic of tragic farce, leaving the audience to ponder the meaning of the play.
  6. Social Commentary: Ionesco’s play can be seen as a commentary on the breakdown of communication and the alienation of individuals in modern society. The absurdity and farce in the play reflect the absurdity and confusion of human existence in a world that seems increasingly disconnected and devoid of meaning.

In conclusion, “The Chairs” by Eugène Ionesco is a prime example of a tragic farce within the theater of the absurd. It combines elements of absurdity, tragedy, and comedy to create a unique theatrical experience that challenges conventional notions of meaning and communication while exploring the darker aspects of the human condition.

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