Most Important question for B.A. English Honours. Write the Social Political Economic and Religious condition of India during 19th century. Here I am going to tell you some points which help you to solve your examination questions paper.
India During 19th Century
Write the Social Political Economic and Religious condition of India during 19th century.
Ans: Around 18th century Industrial Revolution took place in England. After the discovery of sea rout by Vasco de Gama in 1498, the English, French, Portuguese and the Dutch came to India for trade. They also used it to spread missionary activities in India. The Industrial Revolution in Britain increases the demand of raw materials for the factories there. At the same time, they also required a market to sell their finished goods. India provided such a platform to Britain to fulfill all their needs.
After the victory of the battle of Plassey in 1757 and Buxar in 1764, the British controlled over India and began to rule here. 19th century was the great transition period of Indian history. Many changes took place in Indian social, political, economic and religious condition during 19th century.
After the victory of Plassey and Buxar battle, the British controlled over Bengal but the imposition of British rule throughout India was not an easy task. A number of regional powers opposed them and tried to resist the efforts of territorial expansion of the British. In the third Anglo-Maratha War(1817-19), the English defeated the Peshwa and imposed their powers western and central India. Ranjit Singh the powerful kind of north-west India dead in 1839. The British took advantage of this and first Anglo-Sikh war broke out in 1845 which ended with the defeat of the Sikh. In the Second Anglo-Sikh war broke out in 1849, the British finally defeated them in the battle of Gujarat. Dalhousie’s low of doctrines left very bad impressions on Indians. Though this Lord Dalhousie annexed Maratha States of Satara, Sambalpur, Udaipur, Nagpur, Jhansi, and Awadh. The British occupied all over India. They forcefully imposed their lows on Indians. The British low and order completely changed the Indian politics. Most of the resources were exported to England, Indians were exploited.
Indian society underwent many changes after the British came to India. In the 19th century, certain social practices like female infanticide, child marriage, sati, polygamy and a rigid caste system became more prevalent. These practices were against human dignity and values. Women were discriminated against at all stages of life and were the disadvantaged section of the society. They did not have access to any development opportunities to improve their status. Education was limited to a handful of men belonging to the upper castes. Brahmins had access to the Vedas which were written in Sanskrit. Expensive rituals, sacrifices and practices after birth or death were outlined by the priestly class. When the British came to India, they brought new ideas such as liberty, equality, freedom and human rights from the Renaissance, the Reformation Movement and the various revolutions that took place in Europe.
These ideas appealed to some sections of our society and led to several reform movements in different parts of the country. At the forefront of these movements were visionary Indians such as Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Aruna Asaf Ali and Pandita Ramabai. These movements looked for social unity and strived towards liberty, equality and fraternity. Many legal measures were introduced to improve the status of women. For example, the practice of sati was banned in 1829 by Lord Bentinck, the then Governor General. Widow Remarriage was permitted by a law passed in 1856. A law passed in 1872, sanctioned inter-caste and inter-communal marriages. Sharda Act was passed in 1929 preventing child marriage. The act provided that it was illegal to marry a girl below 14 and a boy below 18 years. All the movements severely criticized the caste system and especially the practice of untouchability.